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MOTOREX Magazine 201296 EN

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MOTOREX Magazine 96 E WEB

INSIDE The X-ray

INSIDE The X-ray fluorescence device is used to detect wavelengths corresponding to specific elements and quickly and precisely identify elemental contents and trace elements such as wear particles. ELEMENTAL ANALYSIS USING X-RAY FLUORESCENCE MOTOREX’s high quality standards are not limited to its products. They also extend to its many services. Along with our Technical Customer Service department, our lab services are a key part of the value we provide for our customers. Our new X-ray fluorescence device offers even more precision and speed. Fluorescenceexciting X-ray from source (e.g. tube) The MOTOREX laboratories in Langenthal are capable of carrying out some 120 different types of analysis. The specialists who work there perform an average of 20,000 precise, information-rich analyses per year using state-of-the-art equipment. HOW THE XFA METHOD WORKS X-ray fluorescence analysis (XFA) is a technique used in materials testing. It is one of the commonest methods of qualitatively and quantitatively analyzing sample ATOM 2/3 shell Atomic core 1 shell (2) (1) (3) Characteristic X-ray beam to detector Detached electron composition. Its range of application is extremely broad, comprising lubricants, additives, metals, glass, ceramics, etc. The sample is not destroyed during measurement. The method is capable of detecting traces as small as one microgram. Proper device calibration is crucial. To perform an analysis, four grams of a medium (e.g. hydraulic fluid) is placed in a plastic sampler and positioned in the test device. The material sample is then excited by polychromatic X-rays, gamma rays or ion beams, knocking electrons (1) near the atomic nucleus out of their atom’s inner shell. This allows electrons (2) from higher energy levels to drop down. The energy this releases is discharged in the form of fluorescent radiation (3) that is specific to a given element. The fluorescent radiation can then be analyzed using a radiation detector. X-ray fluorescence analysis can be used to identify and determine the concentration of many elements. It is especially useful in detecting slight contamination, for example by heavy metals. 16

XLABPRO SPECTRUM VIEWER Used/new COREX HV 46 Fe, L-Alpha 1 Cu, L-Alpha 1 Zn, L-Alpha 1 Fe, K-Alpha 1 10 6 Si, K-Alpha 1 P, K-Alpha 1 S, K-Alpha 1 10 5 10 4 Ca, K-Alpha 1 10 3 10 2 10 1 Cu, K-Alpha 1 Zn, K-Alpha 1 10 0 228 456 684 912 A comparison of two COREX HV hydraulic fluid samples via X-ray fluorescence analysis provides a wealth of information. EVALUATION Z Symbol Element New COREX HV46 (A) Concentration Used COREX HV46 (B) Concentration 12 Mg Magnesium 0.00091% 0.0070% 14 Si Silicon 0.00504% 0.00751% 15 P Phosphorus 0.03098% 0.05063% 16 S Sulfur 0.3309% 0.2498% 17 Cl Chlorine 0.00041% 0.00479% 19 K Potassium 0.00022% 0.00022% 20 Ca Calcium 0.00395% 0.00887% 22 Ti Titanium 0.00051% 0.00051% 26 Fe Iron 0.00051% 0.00167% 27 Co Cobalt 0.00004% 0.00030% 29 Cu Copper 0.00010% 0.00074% 30 Zn Zinc 0.04037% 0.04598% 42 Mo Molybdenum 0.00030% 0.00008% 47 Ag Silver 0.00051% 0.00051% 49 In Indium 0.00051% 0.00051% 56 Ba Barium 0.00015% 0.00030% 74 W Tungsten 0.00020% 0.00020% 82 Pb Lead 0.00020% 0.00020% 83 Bi Bismuth 0.00020% 0.00020% – – Total 0.41% 0.38% Relevant increase Relevant decrease RAPID ANALYSIS With the new X-ray fluorescence device, the time needed to perform a comprehensive elemental analysis on the device itself is roughly eight minutes. Besides pure scientific analyses, the instrument’s rapid yet precise operation also yields compelling benefits when analyzing samples from customers. The customer receives analytical results that deliver important information for their operations in a very short time. Above is an XFA image showing the new and used COREX HV oil as a graphic chart. In the used COREX HV, we can observe (evaluation) a decline in additive elements, suggesting that it has been blended with lowalloy oil. There is also a spike for iron, arising from wear during use. The overall oil analysis is based on evaluation of the XFA spectra and a number of further test results. The analysis can be used to determine whether the oil can remain in service or needs to be changed. A TYPICAL ANALYSIS The XFA device was used in the MOTOREX lab to test the elements found in multigrade high-performance COREX HV ISO VG 46 hydraulic oil. For hydraulic fluids, the relevant examination methods are combined in a set of tests. The following excerpt represents only a portion of the full set of analyses. A fresh oil sample A (new oil) is compared with a customer sample B (used oil) taken from a wheel loader after about 2000 hours of operation. The analysis spectrum provides the following information: • Elemental content such as additives and their concentration • Abraded elements (metals) for analysis of wear and any damage • Contamination (condensates) • Blends (other oils) • Raw material contents for production Yesterday – today – tomorrow: MOTOREX labora tory services are an important part of every MOTOREX product, providing a clear added benefit for customers. • Rapid and precise elemental analyses of incoming raw materials, finished products and customers’ samples save time and enhance productivity. motorex Magazine I July 2012 17



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